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The standards define a structured wiring scheme in which all telecommunications outlets throughout the

building are connected in a star topology to a central cross-connect or distribution point in a telecommunications


Common Network Topologies:

The star network topology connects computers, printers, servers and other elements at one central location

called a cross-connect or hub.

The buss network topology connects computers, printers, servers and other elements in a continuous

line or buss. The one advantage to this topology is that it requires no hub. But consider a situation where

a printer is connected at one end of the buss and computers are at the other points. If the connection to a

computer is broken, all computers on the line beyond the broken computer connection also lose their

connection to the printer. This topology is used mostly for small networks (2-5 devices).

The ring topology is a modified star topology, except that there is no central cross-connect, but rather a

ring-connect that retains most of the benefits of the star topology. Ring topology is possible on a standard

star-wired building. The network software and wiring concentrator (hub) will determine whether the network

will be star or ring topology.

Telecommunications Closet

The telecommunications closet should ideally be located near the center of the building. However, if more

outlets are used at one end of the building, it might be more efficient to locate the telecommunications closet

near that end of the building. The telecommunications closet can be a closet, such as a converted janitor closet

 or a small (preferably enclosed) area in the corner of a centrally located classroom. All of the network wires

throughout the building will be run to this location. It is desirable, but not necessary, that a separate electrical

circuit be available to the telecommunications closet.

It is usual practice to go overhead to distribute the wire. Access to all parts of the building through the ceiling

should be a consideration. It is much more convenient, of course, if there is a suspended ceiling. In some

instances it might be necessary to drill through the ceiling. The standards define certain accessibility

requirements for ceiling distribution systems. In older buildings, it might be necessary to use surface mount

plastic or metal channel as raceway to distribute the wire throughout the building. This can be more desirable

and cost effective than it might seem. Consider surface mount raceway that has the appearance of typical

building components such as baseboards or ceiling moldings that can be used to distribute both electrical

and network outlets.

It is recommended that the wires coming into the telecommunications closet be attached to the back of a patch panel. A patch panel is a flat plate with rows of RJ-45 jacks set side-by-side. Each is numbered to correspond to the wall outlets distributed throughout the building. Terminating all wires to a patch panel provides simplicity and flexibility in the management of the network.


Dell Blade Server

Power Edge 1955

Through the use of a specially designed chassis, blade servers are installed vertically, like books in a bookshelf, instead of horizontally, in a 19" industry-standard rack. By removing the power and cooling components from each individual server and moving them to the rear of the chassis, customers can reduce the amount of space required.

Up to ten blade servers can be installed in a chassis that consumes 7U of rack space. Compared to 10U of rack space that ten 1U servers would normally require as individual servers, the PowerEdge 1955 provides up to 43% better density1 with up to 60 total servers in a 42U rack. Compared to the maximum of 42 1U servers, this provides quite significant space savings for space-constrained data centers.

Up to two Dual-Core or Quad-Core Intel®  Xeon®  5000 Sequence processors

  • 5300 sequence processors with up to two 2.66GHz , 1066MHz or 1333MHz front side bus, 2x4MB L2 cache (per processor)
  • L5310 low volt processor with up to two 1.6Ghz, 1066Mhz front side bus, 2x4MB L2 cache (per processor)
  • 5100 sequence processor with up to two 3.0GHz, 1066MHz or 1333MHz front side bus, 4MB L2 cache (per processor)
  • 5148 low volt processor with up to two 2.33GHz, 1333MHz front side bus, 4MB L2 cache (per processor)
  • 5000 sequence processor with up to two 3.0GHz, 667MHz front side bus, 2x2MB L2 cache (per processor)

Cisco Router

CISCO 2691 Ethernet Router 2 10/100

The Cisco 2691 Multiservice Platform is a modular multiservice access router that provides flexible LAN and WAN configurations, multiple security options, and a range of high-performance processors. With more than 70 network modules and interfaces, the modular architecture of the Cisco 2691 allows interfaces to be easily upgraded for network expansion.

The Cisco 2691 shares modular interfaces with the Cisco 1600, 1700, 3600 and 3700 series routers, providing network managers and service providers a cost-effective solution to meet branch office needs, including:
Internet and intranet access with firewall security;  Multiservice voice and data integration; Analog and digital dial access services; VPN access, Inter-VLAN routing; Routing with bandwidth management; Integration of flexible routing and low-density switching.

Many of the older model routers are no longer supported by Cisco. This justifies the purchase of a newer model

(Cisco 2691)

Catalyst 2950 Series Switch

Cisco Catalyst® 2950C-24 is a member of the Catalyst 2950 Series Intelligent Ethernet Switches, and is a fixed-configuration switch that provides wire-speed Fast Ethernet connectivity for midsized networks. The Catalyst 2950 Series is an affordable product line that brings intelligent services, such as enhanced security, high availability and advanced quality of service (QoS), to the network edge—while maintaining the simplicity of traditional LAN switching.

Catalyst 3550 Series Switch

Catalyst 3550 24-10/100 inline power + 2 GBIC ports SMI

When a Catalyst 2950 Switch is combined with a Catalyst 3550 Series Switch, the solution can enable IP routing from the edge to the core of the network.

The Cisco Catalyst 3560 Series switches is a line of fixed configuration, enterprise-class, IEEE 802.3af and Cisco prestandard Power over Ethernet (PoE) switches in Fast Ethernet configurations that provide availability, security, and quality of service (QoS) to enhance network operations. The Catalyst 3560 is an ideal access layer switch for small enterprise wiring closets or branch office environments that are using their LAN infrastructure for the deployment of new products and applications such as IP telephones, wireless access points, video surveillance, building management systems, and remote video kiosks. Customers can deploy network-wide intelligent services, such as advanced QoS, rate limiting, access control lists, multicast management, and high-performance IP routing - while maintaining the simplicity of traditional LAN switching. Embedded in the Catalyst 3560 is the Cisco Cluster Management Suite (CMS) Software, which allows users to simultaneously configure and troubleshoot multiple Cisco Catalyst desktop switches using a standard Web browser. Cisco CMS Software provides configuration wizards that greatly simplify the implementation of converged networks and intelligent network services. The Catalyst 3560 Series can provide a lower total cost of ownership (TCO) for deployments that incorporate Cisco IP phones and Cisco Aironet wireless LAN access points, as well as any IEEE 802.3af-compliant end device. Power over Ethernet removes the need for wall power to each PoE-enabled device and eliminates the cost for additional electrical cabling that would otherwise be necessary in IP phone and wireless LAN deployments. Maximum power availability for a converged voice and data network is attainable when a Catalyst 3560 Switch is combined with the Cisco Redundant Power System 675 (RPS 675) for seamless protection against internal power supply failures and an uninterruptible power supply (UPS) system to safeguard against power outages.

Cisco Micro Hub 1538 Hub – 8 Port

APC Smart-UPS 500VA USB & Serial 100V Black

UPS (Uninterruptible Power Supply)

An Uninterruptible Power Supply is a device that sits between a power supply (e.g. a wall outlet) and a device (e.g. a computer) to prevent undesired features of the power source (outages, sags, surges, bad harmonics, etc.) from the supply from adversely affecting the performance of the device.

Backup, Storage, and Redundancy

        NAS-208 (Network Attached Storage)
       Holds 8 front access, hot-swap HDD bays for up to 2 Terabyte of data 
        storage. Supports RAID 0, 1, 5, +5 hot spare.                  
       The NAS-208 is a NAS (Network Attached Storage) device, which 
        provides a cost-effective solution that minimizes the cost of extra 
        HDD space. 
       The 2U system features 8 HDD drive bays and RAID 0, 1, 5, and 5 with 
        hot spare that helps prevent precious data from being lost, and 
        offers a quick and efficient backup solution. In addition, 
        administrators can monitor hardware status via the LCM (Liquid 
        Crystal Monitor) display, and take any needed action immediately 
        if problems do occur. The NAS-208 provides simple, yet complex 
        reliability, scalability, flexibility, and high performance in the 
        space of 2U.

Dell Precision 490 Computers

Ultimate Performance, Small Footprint

The Dell PrecisionTM  490 is a fully-featured high-performance workstation with a compact, flexible chassis design. With excellent scalability for its size, the 490 offers up to two Dual or Quad-Core Intel®  Xeon®  64-bit processors, up to 32GB1 of memory in four fully-buffered DIMM channels2 and a wide range of high-performance OpenGL graphics cards. This all means that the Dell Precision 490 is an excellent choice for critical, compute-intensive workstation environments where space is a concern.


The Modern Graphics firewall will consist of software and a proxy server protection.

Positive Effects

When implemented correctly, firewalls can control access both to and from a network. They can be configured to keep unauthorized or outside users from gaining access to internal or private networks and services. They can also be configured to prevent internal users from gaining access to outside or unauthorized networks and services. Many firewalls can be deployed within an organization to compartmentalize and control access to services between departments and other private networks.

User authentication. Firewalls can be configured to require user authentication. This allows network administrators to control access by specific users to specific services and resources. Authentication also allows network administrators to track specific user activity and unauthorized attempts to gain access to protected networks or services.

Auditing and logging. Firewalls can provide auditing and logging capabilities. By configuring a firewall to log and audit activity, information may be kept and analyzed at a later date. Firewalls can generate statistics based on the information they collect. These statistics can be useful in making policy decisions that relate to network access and utilization.

Security. Some firewalls function in a way that can hide internal or trusted networks from external or untrusted networks. This additional layer of security can help shield services from unwanted scans.

Firewalls can also provide a central point for security management. This can be very beneficial when an organization's human resources and financial resources are limited.

Negative Effects

Although firewall solutions provide many benefits, negative effects may also be experienced.

Traffic bottlenecks. In some networks, firewalls create a traffic bottleneck. By forcing all network traffic to pass through the firewall, there is a greater chance that the network will become congested.

Single point of failure. Firewalls can create a single point of failure. In most configurations where firewalls are the only link between networks, if they are not configured correctly or are unavailable, no traffic will be allowed through.

User frustration. Firewalls can frustrate users when network resources or services are blocked or unavailable to them, or they are required to authenticate to gain access and forget their passwords. The added security provided by the firewall may not be perceived as worth the increase in the technical support load.

Increased management responsibilities. A firewall often adds to network management responsibilities and makes network troubleshooting more complex. If network administrators don't take time to respond to each alarm and examine logs on a regular basis, they will never know if the firewall is doing its job. All firewalls require ongoing administrative support, general maintenance, software updates, security patches and proper incident handling, increasing the responsibilities of the administrators who are often already overworked.

What Firewalls Cannot Do

The most common misconception about firewalls is that they guarantee security for your network. A firewall cannot and does not guarantee that your network is 100% secure. To achieve greater protection, a firewall should be used in conjunction with other security measures. Even then, there is no guarantee that the network will be 100% secure.

Firewalls cannot offer any protection against inside attacks. For a firewall to be effective, all traffic must pass through it. Users on the internal or trusted network often have access to the protected services without having to go through the firewall. A high percentage of security incidents today come from inside the trusted network.

Firewalls cannot protect against unwanted or unauthorized access through back doors on your network. Back doors are typically created when an internal user dials out from an unauthorized modem and establishes a connection to an untrusted network. This behavior can be innocent in that the user doesn't even realize they are opening a back door, but it is just as threatening as shutting down the firewall.

In most implementations, firewalls cannot provide protection against viruses or malicious code. Since most firewalls do not inspect the payload or content of the packet, they are not aware of any threat that may be contained inside.

Finally, no firewall can protect against inadequate or mismanaged policies. If a password gets out, your network is at risk. Many security breaches occur because users inadvertently give out passwords or leave their workstations open. Even though the person does not have malicious intent, the results can be damaging to the security of the network.

network services : voice over ip

So what is voice over IP? Quite simply, VOIP allows you to use your existing data network or the internet to transfer voice traffic as well as data. The net result is Free voice calls and you can't get more cost effective than that!

Today we can carry voice over our data networks, and this enables voice to be carried from office to office over IP. Corporate companies who have a number of offices, either locally or in multiple countries, usually support their own leased lines for data transfer. Voice Over IP allows telephone calls to be transferred across these lines. Whilst bandwidth considerations must be made, as the voice runs parallel with the data and quality of service needs to be enforced, the cost saving is still phenomenal.

Voice Over IP enables phone calls to be made over the internal network instead of at high cost over the PSTN. Essentially the voice rides for 'free' whether the call is to an office locally or internationally. The cost of international phone calls can be greatly reduced, where offices abroad can enable their users to dial out to that local country at the cost of a local or standard rate call. Voice over IP means phenomenal cost savings on phone calls both nationally and internationally.


Branch-to-Headquarters Connection

Branch-to-Branch Connection

A VOIP network can be as small as two offices or as large as hundreds of offices. Each office installs and configures a VOIPon their network to begin placing calls or sending faxes to the other offices on the VOIP network.

The most substantial savings are often realized in overseas communication.

Office to OfficeBranch-to-Headquarters Connection


Corporate-to-International Office Connection


VOIP supports 14.4K bps real-time faxing over an IP network.

For businesses with a heavy fax load between offices, reducing faxing costs may be the primary use for the Fax to FaxVOIP network.









off-net calling

Off-net Calling / Fax

Telecommuters or customers off the IP network can make free long distance calls by dialing into a local VOIP and placing toll-free calls to any location on the VOIP network.

You can even have a VOIP at a remote site dial a local phone number for a free person-to-person long distance call.



off-premise extensions

Create Off-Premise Extensions

Create off-premise extensions extend the reach of your PBX into home office locations. Simply connect a VOIP gateway to the PBX at the corporate office, and another VOIP gateway at the remote office.

Now, anyone can place calls to the remote office by simply dialing an extension number.

To extend your PBX to a building across the street, utilize a wireless bridge to connect the two networks. Now, you have voice and data connectivity without having to lay cables or paying monthly charges for dedicated lines.

Create Off-Premise Extensions


mobile workers













Utilizing a laptop with Microsoft netmeeting, a mobile worker can make a Voice over IP call back to the corporate office. This allows the mobile worker to utilize the Internet to check voice mail, call co-workers on the corporate PBX, and get a dial tone from the PBX to make off-network calls, all for free.

The H.323 protocol is what allows this solution to work.

It provides complete interoperability among third-party VOIP solutions.

H.323 is the cornerstone technology for the transmission of real-time audio, video and data communications over packet-based networks.

Toll-Free Numbers

With VOIP, you can eliminate the expense of toll-free numbers. For example, an Internet Service Provider can provide customers of remote POP sites with a local support number which is routed back to the main office's customer support group via the Internet.

How does it work?


Voice Over IP













The VOIP is a point-to-point gateway solution.

Simply install one unit at your remote POP site and another at your central location. Then supply your remote customers with a local phone number for customer support.

This will dial the VOIP directly and automatically route back to the technical support team at your central site.

Lower your phone bill today.

A VOIP network can quickly return your investment and quickly begin to pay you back.




Network services news

Network services : replication

Today's heterogeneous busiReplicationness-critical environments demand the highest levels of availability for applications and data across the enterprise. At the same time, enterprise storage continues to grow at a rapid pace and the complexity of these environments continues to expand, making the task of managing data access and availability increasingly difficult.

replication software provides fast, automatic, real-time mirroring of mission-critical data in real-world heterogeneous environments over standard IP networks. Once installed on existing servers, replication software is always running, automatically mirroring critical data changes to one or more servers anywhere on a network.

replication is the process by which changes in a primary server are communicated to one or more 'secondary' servers. The secondary servers are simply mirrors of the primary server. All the servers are transparent to a user.

The secondary servers poll the primary server every few minutes to replicate any changes that have been made. If the primary server does not respond then secondary servers will automatically failover to being the primary server so users can still access applications and data.

1.     ModernGraphics.Com

A website will be created and maintained for Modern Graphics – http://www.moderngraphics.com.

The domain name is available and will be registered and website content will be created and uploaded to the web server. The site will be maintained by 1stGMC.


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