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Cable Types

specialty shielded balanced copper jumper cable assemblies
("twinax" or "short haul copper")

Maximum Segment Length

Half-Duplex 25 meters (82 ft)
Full-Duplex 25 meters (82 ft)

Maximum Number of Transceivers per Segment


Connecter Technology

9-Pin shielded D-subminiature connector, or
8-Pin ANSI Fibre Channel Type 2 (HSSC) connector

Signal Encoding


4.4.5 1000Base-T

The 1000Base-T standard is was defined by the IEEE 802.3ab working group and formally released in June 1999. The standard supports Gigabit Ethernet over 100 meters of Category 5 balanced copper cabling. It provides the following definition for 1000Base-T:

The 1000BASE-T PHY employs full-duplex baseband transmission over four pairs of Category 5 cabling. The aggregate data rate of 1000 Mb/s is achieved by transmission at a data rate of 250 Mb/s over each wire pair. The use of hybrids and cancellers enables full-duplex transmission by allowing symbols to be transmitted and received on the same wire pairs at the same time. Baseband signaling with a modulation rate of 125 Mbaud is used on each of the wire pairs. The transmitted symbols are selected from a four dimensional 5 level symbol constellation. Each four dimensional symbol can be viewed as a 4-tuple (A n , B n , C n , D n ) of one dimensional quinary symbols taken from the set {-2, -1, 0, +1, +2}. Idle mode is a subset of code groups in that each symbol is restricted to the set {2, 0, -2} to improve synchronization. Five level Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM5) is employed for transmission over each wire pair. The modulation rate of 125 MBaud matches the GMII clock rate of 125 MHz and results in a symbol period of 8 ns. This specification permits the use of category 5 or better balanced cabling, installed according to ANSI/TIA/EIA-568-A.

The 1000BASE-T standard makes use of two signaling methods already used in earlier IEEE standards: 100BASE-TX (125 Mbaud three level baseband signaling) and 100BASE-T2 (25 Mbaud PAM5 baseband signaling.) These methods were chosen to make the 1000BASE-T PHY more 100BASE-T friendly for 100/1000 dual speed Ethernet PHY implementations, and to make the standards development less time consuming.

1000Base-T Facts

Transmission Rate

1000 Mb/s (2000 Mb/s in optional full-duplex mode)

Cable Types

4-pairs of Category 5 or better cabling,
100-ohm impedance rating

Maximum Segment Length

100 meters (328 ft)

Maximum Number of Transceivers per Segment


Connecter Technology

8-Pin RJ-45 connector

Signal Encoding



APC Smart-UPS 500VA USB & Serial 100V Black


Output Power Capacity

360 Watts / 500 VA

Max Configurable Power

360 Watts / 500 VA

Nominal Output Voltage


Output Voltage Distortion

Less than 5% at full load

Output Frequency (sync to mains)

47 - 53 Hz for 50 Hz nominal,57 - 63 Hz for 60 Hz nominal

Crest Factor

up to 5 : 1

Waveform Type

Sine wave

Output Connections

(6) NEMA 5-15R


Nominal Input Voltage


Input Frequency

50/60 Hz +/- 5 Hz (auto sensing)

Input Connections

NEMA 5-15P

Cord Length

1.83 meters

Input voltage range for main operations

80 - 123V

Input voltage adjustable range for mains operation

70 - 125V

Batteries & Runtime

Battery Type

Maintenance-free sealed Lead-Acid battery with suspended electrolyte : leakproof

Typical recharge time

3 hour(s)

Replacement battery cartridge


RBC™ Quantity


Typical Backup Time
at Half Load

27.5 minutes (180 Watts)

Typical Backup Time
at Full Load

8.9 minutes (360 Watts)

Runtime Chart


Communications & Management

Interface Port(s)

DB-9 RS-232,Smart-Slot,USB

Available SmartSlot™ Interface Quantity


Control panel

LED status display with load and battery bar-graphs and On Line : On Battery : Replace Battery : and Overload Indicators

Audible Alarm

Alarm when on battery : distinctive low battery alarm : configurable delays

Emergency Power Off (EPO)


Surge Protection and Filtering

Surge energy rating

540 Joules


Full time multi-pole noise filtering : 0.3% IEEE surge let-through : zero clamping response time : meets UL 1449


Maximum Height

157.00 mm

Maximum Width

137.00 mm

Maximum depth

358.00 mm

Net Weight

12.73 KG

Shipping Weight

14.09 KG

Shipping Height

279.00 mm

Shipping Width

273.00 mm

Shipping Depth

495.00 mm



Units per Pallet



Operating Environment

0 - 40 °C

Operating Relative Humidity

0 - 95%

Operating Elevation

0-3000 meters

Storage Temperature

-15 - 45 °C

Storage Relative Humidity

0 - 95%

Storage Elevation

0-15000 meters

Audible noise at 1 meter from surface of unit

55 dBA

Online Thermal Dissipation

70.00 BTU/hr


Regulatory Approvals

UL 1778,UL Listed,VCCI

Standard Warranty

2 years repair or replace


Should be secure, moderate temperature, moderate moisture, relatively clean (no dust, exhaust, ozone or metal shavings).

Using Fiber Optic Cable

The use of fiber only needs to be considered for use in the backbone (the connect between telecommunications closets) to retain electrical isolation between buildings or additions. Its use as a cable distribution media throughout a building, in place of category 5 wire, is an unnecessary expense.

The DHCP client can be configured in the file /etc/dhclient.conf. If the file is not present, DHCP will still work fine. See dhclient.conf(5) and dhcp-options(5) for more detailed information. A typical /etc/dhclient.conf is shown below.

send host-name "myname.my.domain";                 <=== Put your
                                                        hostname here.
send dhcp-client-identifier "myident";             <=== Put your host
                                                        identifier here.
                                                     (this is often times
                                                      the same as myname).
request subnet-mask, broadcast-address, routers,
timeout 30;
retry 60;
select-timeout 5;
script "/sbin/dhclient-script";
lease {
  interface "sn0";                               <=== put your interface
                                                      device here.
  option host-name "myname.my.domain";           <=== put your 
                                                      hostname here
  option subnet-mask;
  option domain-name "my.domain";                <=== put your
                                                      domain name here
  option domain-name-servers;
  renew 2 2000/1/12 00:00:01;
  rebind 2 2000/1/12 00:00:01;
  expire 2 2000/1/12 00:00:01;

Enable DHCP

Edit /etc/rc.conf and edit the 'dhclient' line to read 'dhclient=YES'. By default, DHCP requests will be sent to all attached network interfaces. If you want to only use DHCP on a single/less network cards, add a list of network interfaces which should be configured with DHCP to the 'dhclient_flags' line. For example, 'dhclient_flags="ae1"'.

The next time you reboot your machine it will configure itself as a DHCP client. To enable DHCP without rebooting, run the command 'sh /etc/rc.d/dhclient start'.

How do I keep dhclient from nuking my /etc/resolv.conf?

Usually dhclient should rewrite your /etc/resolv.conf with information it retrieved from the DHCP server. For the rare occasions that this is not desired, this can be disabled by placing an appropriate hook in /etc/dhclient-enter-hooks:

# cat /etc/dhclient-enter-hooks
make_resolv_conf() {
        echo "doing nothing to resolv.conf"

See the dhclient-script(8) man page for more information.

DHCP Server Setup

When you have more than 2 computers to connect on a LAN you will need either a HUB or a network switch. This is a box that you connect all the computers to and will be able to send the data from one to the other. A HUB will give slower traffic on the network cause the data sent from one computer will go to every single PC so the target computer will take the data. More computers equals more data traffic, so slower response time.

When connecting a computers on a HUB, you need to either have a DHCP server on the network, or set static IPs on each of the computers so they can communicate. The DHCP server will automatically assign an IP address to each computer that logs on the network to allow then to have access to the LAN resources.

A network switch is like a HUB except it has a software in it to control what is going on the network. Using IP addresses, a switch can determine which computer the data has to be sent to and will send that data on the target computer port only. Sending the data on the target computer port only lowers the traffic on the network and will dramatically increase the speed of the network.

Network switches come with a built in DHCP server that will assign the IP address to computers logging on the network. This is nice, since you do not have to have a computer acting as a DHCP server and you do not need to set static IPs that will conflict if you use the same on two different PCs. They usually come with built in security features. Internet routers used to share your internet cable modem connection will have a built in firewall for example.

The network cards are usually Plug&Play and fit in a PCI slot of your computer, you just have to install it and it will be detected. Most will not need additional drivers and will be automatically set up. If you do not have a switch, then you will have to configure the IP and other settings in Windows to be able to connect to the LAN.


This section shows how to setup a DHCP server. Note that you do not need to set up a DHCP server unless you want to dynamically assign addresses for computers on your LAN. For more detailed information see dhcpd(8), dhcpd.conf(5), and dhcp-options(5).

Configure DHCPD

The DHCP server configuration is contained in the file /etc/dhcpd.conf. If this file does not exist on your system, you will have to create it. Remember to customize this as needed, ie: change the hostname stuff and the ethernet interface. A typical /etc/dhcpd.conf is shown below. In the example, 7 addresses are made available for use by DHCP clients. These addresses are through The DHCP server will tell the clients what IP address, netmask, routers, name servers, and domain name to use.

# Setting DHCPD global parameters
allow unknown-clients;
ddns-update-style ad-hoc;
# Set parameters for the subnet.
subnet netmask {
range;                <=== Range of IP addresses
                                                   available for assignment.
default-lease-time 604800;                    <=== Default lease time in 
                                                   seconds.  This is the time
                                                   assigned if the client doesn't
                                                   request one.
max-lease-time 604800;                        <=== Maximum time a lease will be 
option subnet-mask;             <=== subnetmask given to clients
option domain-name-servers,;  <=== put a list of name server IP
                                                   addresses here.
option domain-name "your.domain.name";
option routers;                   <=== list of routers the clients should


i)        http://www.uwec.edu/hiltonts/101/CBAsample/Projectsample.htm





















CCNA 1 and 2 Companion Guide Revised Third Edition. Indianapolis, Indiana :Cisco Systems, Inc.; 2005

ii)    Notes:

An alternative solution is the Cisco unified communications for small businesses but we have decided on the network described in this document above. It is a tried and tested reliable and redundant system.

“April 03, 2007 -- Cisco Systems Inc. announced today a new Smart Business Communications System to give unified communications capabilities to even the smallest businesses.

The system, which includes a new switch/router called the Unified Communications 500, brings Cisco squarely into a relatively new market for small businesses valued at $10 billion annually, analysts and Cisco officials said.

The Unified Communications 500 Series switch/router incorporates call-control software and will support a Cisco Unified IP phone with a focus on easy setup and management, Cisco officials said. "It is a Swiss Army knife approach," said Rick Moran, vice president of marketing for unified communications. It will be available at $699 per seat in June, with one IP phone per seat.

The Unified Communications 500 comes with Cisco's previously announced Unified Communications Manager and Unity Express software. A Cisco Configuration Assistant, available at no extra cost, is designed to reduce setup time and to help configure telephony, messaging, switching, wireless LAN, firewall and other security features, Moran said.

Cisco picked IPcelerate Inc. in Carrollton, Texas, to provide customized business productivity applications for the new system, giving small businesses a set of prepackaged codes and interfaces, depending on the vertical industry they are in, said IPcelerate CEO Kevin Brown.

For Cisco, the small business unified communications technology represents a new market that Cisco has not tapped into, Brown and Moran said.

In many cases, Cisco's small business system will be the first time a set of communications capabilities are combined in one place, analysts said. Several large vendors sell voice switches that small businesses can use, but creating an affordable set of applications designed for small businesses is something new, analysts said.

"For many small businesses, frankly, they don't know who Cisco is," said Deb Mielke, an analyst at Treillage Network Strategies Inc. in McKinney, Texas. "Cisco has made the technology simple for small businesses."

Mielke said the small business market, with sometimes eight to 15 workers, is often ignored by major vendors but is potentially lucrative. "It's one of the last areas that Cisco can enter," she said.

The small businesses should consider the Cisco system as a way to control costs over antiquated, paper-based systems that rely on "pieces of paper or Excel spreadsheets," said Steve Hilton, an analyst at Yankee Group Research Inc. in Boston.

Zeus Kerravala, another Yankee Group analyst, said Avaya Inc.'s IP Office is probably the closest product to what Cisco announced, "but is not nearly as feature-rich as this Cisco product." He said Nortel Networks Corp. could have entered this market, "but missed the bull's-eye."

Brown said all the major communications equipment makers. including Avaya, Nortel and Cisco, recognize the need to build applications atop their hardware, although Cisco has the lead. Microsoft Corp. has also been building applications for communications networks, he noted.”

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